By Zara Mansoor.
Karl Heinrich Marx was born in Trier, Germany on 5th of May 1818. His training and schooling begun from home, he was privately educated by his father and later in 1830 he was sent to Trier High School and in 1835 he took admission in University of Bonn to study law in detail on the wish of his father. He has no interest in law and was eager to study Literature and Philosophy.
In 1836, Karl Marx got engaged with Jenny Von Westphalen. Both had a difference in class and Jenny was older than Karl Marx. In 1843 they got married. Marx always had a good companionship with his father-in-law that even after completing his Phd, he dedicated it to his father-in-law Ludwig Von Westphalen.
In this period Karl Marx started to study Hegel. His followers were divided in two; Left Hegelians, Right Hegelians. Karl Marx joined Left Hegelians and in this there were two popular characters; Ludwig Feuerbach and Bruno Bauer. He begin his work with them, wrote literature, dramas, poetry but there was no publication of such stuff by his side at that time. In 1841 Karl Marx completed his Ph.D with the thesis of “The difference between Democratic Epicurean Philosophy of Nature.” He decided to step in the field of journalism. In 1842, there was a revolutionary newspaper in Cologne named Rheinische Zeitung in which he displayed his political opinions and column writings. His pieces of writings were so radical that in 1843, government decided to put censor on it.
Marx joined another revolutionary newspaper “Deutsche Jahrbuchor”. His bad luck, government banned it too. In 1843, Marx completed the book named “On the Jewish Question” and published it. His second book was “Contribution of Critique of Hegel’s Philosophy of Right”. Restrictions imposed on Karl Marx made him or his wife to leave Germany. They made their minds to settle in Paris because there was political freedom and in 1843 they went to Paris.
In Paris, Karl joined a revolutionary newspaper “Deutsche Franzosische Jahrbucher”. As he started contributing this newspaper, Paris’s government asked France government to close the publication of this newspaper so, it was censored.
In 1844, Karl Marx met Fredrick Engels (1820-1895), it was proved to be a historic meeting between these two. At this time Engels book was published named “Conditions of the working class in England in 1844”. Karl read this book and it left a deep impression on his mind and he stepped to the conclusion that in future, only workers class can build socialism. In 1844, Karl worked on “The economic and Philosophic Manuscript” and for the first time gave us the glimpse of Alienation, then in 1845, Karl and Engels together started to write a book “The Holy Family”. He also wrote “Thesis of Feuerbach” and a very popular sentence from this thesis “The philosophers have only interpreted the World. The point however, is to change it”.
He wrote for another newspaper “Vorwarts” published by Revolutionary Socialist League of the Just, later this league changed its name to Communist League. In 1845, government prohibited it’s publications and Karl Marx was deported. He went to Brussels and promised not to write any critic on any issue. Engels also came to Brussels and they both started working together. They wrote a book “The German Ideology”. In 1847 Karl Marx published the other book “The Poverty of Philosophy”, and in 1848 his most popular book was published “Communist Manifesto”. In this book there was a popular statement mentioned by Marx, “The history of all hitherto existing society is the history of class struggle”.
Later he was exiled from Brussels, went to Paris and then to Cologne again and published his own newspaper Rheinische Zeitung (New). Government accused him many times that he was doing efforts to bring revolution in the Country. In a less time this newspaper was considered out of bounds and censored, he was expatriated from Germany.
He settled in London after that but he wasn’t ever granted the citizenship. He faced many difficult circumstances, his son was died and he hadn’t had enough money to bury him. At that time Frederick Engels helped him out. Later on, he started writing in “New-York Daily Tribune”.
In 1852 he finished his book “The 18th Brumaire of Louts Bonaparte” and displayed the rebellion attitude which was boiling in France in 1848. In 1867, Marx published Das Capital, and Capital volume II and Capital volume III were came in front after the death of Karl Marx by Engels.
In 1871, Paris Commune occurred and on it Marx wrote a book “The Civil War in France (1871)”. He spent the last days of life while writing a book “Critique of the Gotha Program” in which he criticized Wilhelm Liebknecht, August Bebel & Ferdinand Lassalle and mentioned that famous utterance “From each according to his ability, to each according to his need” it is also mentioned in Pakistan’s constitution with a slightly little change “From each according to his ability, to each according to his work”
After the 15 months of the death of Jenny, Karl Marx lost his soul in 1883. In his life he didn’t succeed to bring revolution but after the 25 years of his death the revolution brought in Russia was on the basis of Marxism.
“Zara Mansoor is a student of media studies and based in Islamabad. She is an article writer, blogger and contributes to various magazines. She can be reached at firstname.lastname@example.org“